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The English language is the tongue now current in England and her colonies
throughout the world and also throughout the greater part of the United
States of America. It sprang from the German tongue spoken by the Teutons,
who came over to Britain after the conquest of that country by the Romans.
These Teutons comprised Angles, Saxons, Jutes and several other tribes
from the northern part of Germany. They spoke different dialects, but
these became blended in the new country, and the composite tongue came to
be known as the Anglo-Saxon which has been the main basis for the language
as at present constituted and is still the prevailing element. Therefore
those who are trying to do away with some of the purely Anglo-Saxon
words, on the ground that they are not refined enough to express their
aesthetic ideas, are undermining main props which are necessary for the
support of some important parts in the edifice of the language.
The Anglo-Saxon element supplies the essential parts of speech, the
article, pronoun of all kinds, the preposition, the auxiliary verbs, the
conjunctions, and the little particles which bind words into sentences and
form the joints, sinews and ligaments of the language. It furnishes the
most indispensable words of the vocabulary. (See Chap. XIII.) Nowhere is
the beauty of Anglo-Saxon better illustrated than in the Lord's Prayer.
Fifty-four words are pure Saxon and the remaining ones could easily be
replaced by Saxon words. The gospel of St. John is another illustration of
the almost exclusive use of Anglo-Saxon words. Shakespeare, at his best, is
Anglo-Saxon. Here is a quotation from the Merchant of Venice, and of the
fifty-five words fifty-two are Anglo-Saxon, the remaining three French:
All that glitters is not gold--
Often have you heard that told;
Many a man his life hath sold,
But my outside to behold.
Guilded tombs do worms infold.
Had you been as wise as bold,
Young in limbs, in judgment old,
Your answer had not been inscrolled--
Fare you well, your suit is cold.
The lines put into the mouth of Hamlet's father in fierce intenseness,
second only to Dante's inscription on the gate of hell, have one hundred
and eight Anglo-Saxon and but fifteen Latin words.
The second constituent element of present English is Latin which comprises
those words derived directly from the old Roman and those which came
indirectly through the French. The former were introduced by the Roman
Christians, who came to England at the close of the sixth century under
Augustine, and relate chiefly to ecclesiastical affairs, such as saint from
sanctus, religion from religio, chalice from calix, mass from
missa, etc. Some of them had origin in Greek, as priest from presbyter,
which in turn was a direct derivative from the Greek presbuteros, also
deacon from the Greek diakonos.
The largest class of Latin words are those which came through the
Norman-French, or Romance. The Normans had adopted, with the Christian
religion, the language, laws and arts of the Romanized Gauls and Romanized
Franks, and after a residence of more than a century in France they
successfully invaded England in 1066 under William the Conqueror and a new
era began. The French Latinisms can be distinguished by the spelling. Thus
Saviour comes from the Latin Salvator through the French Sauveur;
judgment from the Latin judiclum through the French jugement; people,
from the Latin populus, through the French peuple, etc.
For a long time the Saxon and Norman tongues refused to coalesce and were
like two distinct currents flowing in different directions. Norman was
spoken by the lords and barons in their feudal castles, in parliament and
in the courts of justice. Saxon by the people in their rural homes, fields
and workshops. For more than three hundred years the streams flowed apart,
but finally they blended, taking in the Celtic and Danish elements, and as
a result came the present English language with its simple system of
grammatical inflection and its rich vocabulary.
The father of English prose is generally regarded as Wycliffe, who
translated the Bible in 1380, while the paternal laurels in the secular
poetical field are twined around the brows of Chaucer.
Besides the Germanic and Romanic, which constitute the greater part of
the English language, many other tongues have furnished their quota. Of
these the Celtic is perhaps the oldest. The Britons at Caesar's invasion,
were a part of the Celtic family. The Celtic idiom is still spoken in two
dialects, the Welsh in Wales, and the Gaelic in Ireland and the Highlands
of Scotland. The Celtic words in English, are comparatively few; cart,
dock, wire, rail, rug, cradle, babe, grown, griddle, lad, lass, are some
in most common use.
The Danish element dates from the piratical invasions of the ninth and
tenth centuries. It includes anger, awe, baffle, bang, bark, bawl,
blunder, boulder, box, club, crash, dairy, dazzle, fellow, gable, gain,
ill, jam, kidnap, kill, kidney, kneel, limber, litter, log, lull, lump,
mast, mistake, nag, nasty, niggard, horse, plough, rug, rump, sale,
scald, shriek, skin, skull, sledge, sleigh, tackle, tangle, tipple,
trust, viking, window, wing, etc.
From the Hebrew we have a large number of proper names from Adam and Eve
down to John and Mary and such words as Messiah, rabbi, hallelujah,
cherub, seraph, hosanna, manna, satan, Sabbath, etc.
Many technical terms and names of branches of learning come from the Greek.
In fact, nearly all the terms of learning and art, from the alphabet to the
highest peaks of metaphysics and theology, come directly from the Greek--
philosophy, logic, anthropology, psychology, aesthetics, grammar,
rhetoric, history, philology, mathematics, arithmetic, astronomy, anatomy,
geography, stenography, physiology, architecture, and hundreds more in
similar domains; the subdivisions and ramifications of theology as
exegesis, hermeneutics, apologetics, polemics, dogmatics, ethics,
homiletics, etc., are all Greek.
The Dutch have given us some modern sea terms, as sloop, schooner, yacht
and also a number of others as boom, bush, boor, brandy, duck, reef,
skate, wagon. The Dutch of Manhattan island gave us boss, the name for
employer or overseer, also cold slaa (cut cabbage and vinegar), and a
number of geographical terms.
Many of our most pleasing euphonic words, especially in the realm of
music, have been given to us directly from the Italian. Of these are
piano, violin, orchestra, canto, allegro, piazza, gazette, umbrella,
gondola, bandit, etc.
Spanish has furnished us with alligator, alpaca, bigot, cannibal, cargo,
filibuster, freebooter, guano, hurricane, mosquito, negro, stampede,
potato, tobacco, tomato, tariff, etc.
From Arabic we have several mathematical, astronomical, medical and
chemical terms as alcohol, alcove, alembic, algebra, alkali, almanac,
assassin, azure, cipher, elixir, harem, hegira, sofa, talisman, zenith
Bazaar, dervish, lilac, pagoda, caravan, scarlet, shawl, tartar, tiara
and peach have come to us from the Persian.
Turban, tulip, divan and firman are Turkish.
Drosky, knout, rouble, steppe, ukase are Russian.
The Indians have helped us considerably and the words they have given us
are extremely euphonic as exemplified in the names of many of our rivers
and States, as Mississippi, Missouri, Minnehaha, Susquehanna, Monongahela,
Niagara, Ohio, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Iowa, Nebraska, Dakota, etc. In
addition to these proper names we have from the Indians wigwam, squaw,
hammock, tomahawk, canoe, mocassin, hominy, etc.
There are many hybrid words in English, that is, words, springing from two
or more different languages. In fact, English has drawn from all sources,
and it is daily adding to its already large family, and not alone is it
adding to itself, but it is spreading all over the world and promises to
take in the entire human family beneath its folds ere long. It is the
opinion of many that English, in a short time, will become the universal
language. It is now being taught as a branch of the higher education in the
best colleges and universities of Europe and in all commercial cities in
every land throughout the world. In Asia it follows the British sway and
the highways of commerce through the vast empire of East India with its two
hundred and fifty millions of heathen and Mohammedan inhabitants. It is
largely used in the seaports of Japan and China, and the number of natives
of these countries who are learning it is increasing every day. It is
firmly established in South Africa, Liberia, Sierra Leone, and in many of
the islands of the Indian and South Seas. It is the language of Australia,
New Zealand, Tasmania, and Christian missionaries are introducing it into
all the islands of Polynesia. It may be said to be the living commercial
language of the North American continent, from Baffin's Bay to the Gulf of
Mexico, and from the Atlantic to the Pacific, and it is spoken largely in
many of the republics of South America. It is not limited by parallels of
latitude, or meridians of longitude. The two great English-speaking
countries, England and the United States, are disseminating it north,
south, east and west over the entire world.
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