The Semicolon

The semicolon is used to denote a degree of separation greater than that

indicated by the comma, but less than that indicated by the colon. It

prevents the repetition of the comma and keeps apart the more important

members of the sentence. The semicolon is generally used in long

sentences, but may sometimes be properly used in short ones.

_Rules for the Use of the Semicolon_

1. When the members of a compound sentence are complex or contain


Franklin, like many others, was a printer; but, unlike the others,

he was student, statesman, and publicist as well.

With ten per cent of this flour the bread acquired a slight flavor

of rye; fifteen per cent gave it a dark color; a further addition

made the baked crumb very hard.

The meeting was composed of representatives from the following

districts: Newton, 4 delegates, 2 substitutes; Dorchester, 6

delegates, 3 substitutes; Quincy, 8 delegates, 4 substitutes;

Brookline, 10 delegates, 5 substitutes.

2. When the members of a compound sentence contain statements distinct,

but not sufficiently distinct to be thrown into separate sentences.

Sit thou a patient looker-on;

Judge not the play before the play be done;

Her plot has many changes; every day

Speaks a new scene. The last act crowns the play.

3. When each of the members of a compound sentence makes a distinct

statement and has some dependence on statements in the other member or

members of the sentence.

Wisdom hath builded her house; she hath hewn out her seven pillars;

she hath killed her beasts; she hath mingled her wine; she hath

furnished her table.

Each member of this sentence is nearly complete. It is not quite a full

and definite statement, but it is much more than a mere amplification

such as we might get by leaving out _she hath_ every time after the

first. In the former case we should use periods. In the latter we should

use commas.

4. A comma is ordinarily used between the clauses of a compound sentence

that are connected by a simple conjunction, but a semicolon may be used

between clauses connected by conjunctive adverbs. Compare the following


The play was neither edifying nor interesting to him, and he decided

to change his plans.

The play was neither edifying nor interesting to him; therefore he

decided to change his plans.

5. To indicate the chapter references in scriptural citations.

Matt. i: 5, 7, 9; v: 1-10; xiv: 3, 8, 27.

The semicolon should always be put outside quotation marks unless it

forms a part of the quotation itself.

"Take care of the cents and the dollars will take care of

themselves"; a very wise old saying.

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