The Dash





The dash is a very useful mark which has been greatly overworked by

careless writers. It is very easy to make in manuscript and serves as a

convenient cover for the writer's ignorance of what point should

properly be used.



The conspicuousness of the dash makes it a very useful mark for guiding

the eye of the reader to the unity of the sentence. It is particularly

useful in legal pleadings where there is much repetition of statement

and great elaboration of detail. In such cases commas, semicolons, and

even parentheses are so multiplied that the relation of the clauses is

lost sight of. The confusion thus arising may often be cleared up by

intelligent use of the dash.



The dash is sometimes used to connect a side heading with the text that

follows, or to connect the end of that text with the name of the writer.



A RULE FOR PEACE.--If it be possible, as much as lieth in you, live

peaceably with all men.--_St. Paul._



The dash is sometimes used in catalogue work as a ditto mark.



DE VINNE, THEODORE LOW. Historic Printing Types. New York, 1886.

----The Invention of Printing. Francis Hart & Co., New York, 1878.

----Plain Printing Types. Oswald Publishing Co., New York, 1914.



French printers use the dash in printing dialogue as a partial

substitute for quotation marks. Quotation marks are placed at the

beginning and end of the dialogue and a dash precedes each speech. This

form is used even if the dialogue is extended over many pages.





_Rules for the Use of the Dash_



1. To mark abrupt changes in sentiment and in construction.



Have you ever heard--but how should you hear?



2. To mark pauses and repetitions used for dramatic or rhetorical

effect.



They make a desert, and call it--peace.

Thou, great Anna, whom three states obey,

Who sometimes counsel takes--and sometimes tea.



3. To express in one sentence great contrariety of action or emotion or

to increase the speed of the discourse by a succession of snappy

phrases.



She starts--she moves--she seems to feel

The thrill of life along her keel.



In this connection DeVinne gives the following excellent example from

Sterne:



Nature instantly ebbed again;--the film returned to its place;--the

pulse fluttered,--stopped,--went on,--throbbed,--stopped

again,--moved,--stopped,--Shall I go on?--No.



Attention may be called to Sterne's use of the semicolon and the comma

with the dash, a use now obsolete except in rare cases.



4. To separate the repetition or different amplifications of the same

statement.



The infinite importance of what he has to do--the goading conviction

that it must be done--the dreadful combination in his mind of both

the necessity and the incapacity--the despair of crowding the

concerns of an age into a moment--the impossibility of beginning a

repentance which should have been completed--of setting about a

peace which should have been concluded--of suing for a pardon which

should have been obtained--all these complicated concerns

intolerably augment the sufferings of the victims.



5. At the end of a series of phrases which depend upon a concluding

clause.



Railroads and steamships, factories and warehouses, wealth and

luxury--these are not civilization.



6. When a sentence is abruptly terminated.



If I thought he said it I would--



7. To precede expressions which are added to an apparently completed

sentence, but which refer to some previous part of the sentence.



He wondered what the foreman would say--he had a way of saying the

unexpected.



8. To connect extreme dates in time indication.



The war of 1861--1865. The war of 1861-1865.



9. To define verse references in the Bible or page references in books.



Matt. v: 1--11. Matt. v: 1-11.

See pp. 50--53. See pp. 50-53.



NOTE. In instances such as given in the two preceding rules the en dash

may sometimes serve if the em dash appears too conspicuous.



10. A dash preceded by a colon is sometimes used before a long quotation

forming a new paragraph. In other cases no point need accompany the

dash.



The dash is sometimes used as a substitute for commas. Writers on the

subject say that this use occurs when the connection between the

parenthetical clause and the context is closer than would be indicated

by commas. The distinction, if real, is difficult to see. It would be

better if none but the most experienced writers attempted the use of the

dash in this way.



Dashes are often used instead of marks of parenthesis. It is better to

let each mark do its own work.





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