The Comma





The comma is by far the most difficult of all the punctuation marks to

use correctly. Usage varies greatly from time to time and among equally

good writers and printers at the same time. Certain general rules may be

stated and should be learned. Many cases, however, will arise in which

the rules will be differently interpreted and differently applied by

different people.



The comma is the least degree of separation possible of indication in

print. Its business is to define the particles and minor clauses of a

sentence. A progressive tendency may be seen in the printing of English

for centuries toward the elimination of commas, and the substitution of

the comma for the semicolon and of the semicolon for the colon. Compare

a page of the King James version of the Bible, especially in one of its

earlier printings, with a page of serious discourse of to-day and the

effects of the tendency will be easily seen. It is part of the general

tendency toward greater simplicity of expression which has developed the

clear and simple English of the best contemporary writers out of the

involved and ornate style of the period of Queen Elizabeth. An ornate

and involved style needs a good deal of punctuation to make it

intelligible, while a simple and direct style needs but very little

help.



This progressive change in the need for punctuation and in the attitude

of writers toward it accounts for the difference in usage and for the

difficulty in fixing rules to cover all cases. The present attitude

toward punctuation, especially the use of the comma, is one of aversion.

The writer is always held to justification of the presence of a comma

rather than of its absence. Nevertheless it is quite possible to go too

far in the omission of commas in ordinary writing. It is quite possible

to construct sentences in such a way as to avoid their use. The result

is a harsh and awkward style, unwarranted by any necessity. Ordinary

writing needs some use of commas to indicate the sense and to prevent

ambiguity.



Always remember that the real business of the comma is just that of

helping the meaning of the words and of preventing ambiguity by showing

clearly the separation and connection of words and phrases. If there is

possibility of misunderstanding without a comma, put one in. If the

words tell their story beyond possibility of misunderstanding without a

comma, there is no reason for its use. This rule will serve as a fairly

dependable guide in the absence of any well recognized rule for a

particular case, or where doubt exists as to the application of a rule.



Reversed, and usually in pairs, commas mark the beginning of a

quotation.



In numerical statements the comma separates Arabic figures by triplets

in classes of hundreds: $5,276,492.72.



In tabular work reversed commas are used as a sign for ditto.



SCHOOLS TEACHING PRINTING



Boston: Boston Typothetae School of Printing.

" Industrial Arts High School.

Chicago: Lakeside Press School of Printing.

" Chicago Typothetae School of Printing.

" Lane Technical High School.



The comma is placed between the words which it is intended to separate.

When used in connection with quotation marks, it is always placed inside

them.



"Honesty is the best policy," as the proverb says.





_Rules for the Use of the Comma_



1. After each adjective or adverb in a series of two or more when not

connected by conjunctions.



He was a tall, thin, dark man.



The rule holds when the last member of the series is preceded by a

conjunction.



He was tall, thin, and dark.



The comma may be omitted when the words are combined into a single idea.



A still hot day.

An old black coat.



2. After each pair in a series of pairs of words or phrases not

connected by conjunctions.



Sink or swim, live or die, survive or perish,

I give my hand and my heart to this vote.



Formerly the master printer, his journeymen, even his apprentices,

all lived in the same house.



3. To separate contrasted words.



We rule by love, not by force.



4. Between two independent clauses connected by a conjunction.



The press was out of order, but we managed to start it.



5. Before a conjunction when the word which preceded it is qualified by

an expression which does not qualify the word which follows the

conjunction.



He quickly looked up, and spoke.



6. Between relative clauses which explain the antecedent, or which

introduce a new thought.



The type, which was badly worn, was not fit for the job.



If the relative clause limits the meaning of the antecedent, but does

not explain it and does not add a new thought, the comma is not used.



He did only that which he was told to do.



7. To separate parenthetical or intermediate expressions from the

context.



The school, you may be glad to know, is very successful.

The books, which I have read, are returned with gratitude.

He was pleased, I suppose, with his work.



If the connection of such expressions is so close as to form one

connected idea the comma is not used.



The press nearest the south window is out of order.



If the connection of such expressions is remote, parentheses are used.



The Committee (appointed under vote of April 10, 1909) organized and

proceeded with business.



8. To separate the co-ordinate clauses of compound sentences if such

clauses are simple in construction and closely related.



He was kind, not indulgent, to his men; firm, but just, in

discipline; courteous, but not familiar, to all.



9. To separate quotations, or similar brief expressions from the

preceding part of the sentence.



Caesar reported to the Senate, "I came, I saw, I conquered."

The question is, What shall we do next?



10. To indicate the omission of the verb in compound sentences having a

common verb in several clauses.



One man glories in his strength, another in his wealth, another in

his learning.



11. To separate phrases containing the case absolute from the rest of

the sentence.



The form having been locked up, a proof was taken.



12. Between words or phrases in apposition to each other.



I refer to DeVinne, the great authority on Printing.



The comma is omitted when such an apposition is used as a single phrase

or a compound name.



The poet Longfellow was born in Portland.

The word _patriotic_ is now in extensive use.



13. After phrases and clauses which are placed at the beginning of a

sentence by inversion.



Worn out by hard wear, the type at last became unfit for use.

Ever since, he has been fond of celery.



The comma is omitted if the phrase thus used is very short.



Of success there could be no doubt.



14. Introductory phrases beginning with _if_, _when_, _wherever_,

_whenever_, and the like should generally be separated from the rest of

the sentence by a comma, even when the statement may appear to be

direct.



When a plain query has not been answered, it is best to follow copy.

If the copy is hard to read, the compositor will set but few pages.



15. To separate introductory words and phrases and independent adverbs

from the rest of the sentence.



Now, what are you going to do there?



I think, also, Franklin owed much of his success to his strong

common sense.



This idea, however, had already been grasped by others.



Of course the comma is not used when these adverbs are used in the

ordinary way.



They also serve who only stand and wait.

This must be done, however contrary to our inclinations.



16. To separate words or phrases of direct address from the context.



I submit, gentlemen, to your judgment.

From today, my son, your future is in your own hands.



17. Between the name of a person and his title or degree.



Woodrow Wilson, President of the United States.

Charles W. Eliot, LL.D.



18. Before the word _of_ connecting a proper name with residence or

position.



Senator Lodge, of Massachusetts.

Elihu B. Root, Senator from New York.



19. After the salutatory phrase at the beginning of a letter, when

informal.



Dear John,



When the salutation is formal a colon should be used.



My dear Mr. Smith:



20. To separate the closing salutation of a formal letter from the rest

of the sentence of which it forms a part.



Soliciting your continued patronage, I am,

Very sincerely yours,

John W. Smith.



21. To separate two numbers.



January 31, 1915.

By the end of 1914, 7062 had been built.



22. To indicate an ellipsis.



Subscription for the course, one dollar.



Exceptions to this rule are made in very brief sentences, especially in

advertisements: Tickets 25 cents. Price one dollar.



The foregoing rules for the use of the comma have been compiled from

those given by a considerable number of authorities. Further examination

of authorities would probably have added to the number and to the

complexity of these rules. No two sets of rules which have come under

the writer's observation are alike. Positive disagreements in modern

treatises on the subject are few. The whole matter, however, turns so

much on the use made of certain general principles and the field is so

vast that different writers vary greatly in their statements and even in

their ideas of what ought to be stated. It is very difficult to strike

the right mean between a set of rules too fragmentary and too incomplete

for any real guidance and a set of rules too long to be remembered and

used.



After all possible has been done to indicate the best usage it remains

true that the writer or the printer must, in the last resort, depend

very largely on himself for the proper application of certain

principles. The compositor may find himself helped, or restricted, by

the established style of the office, or he may at times be held to

strict following of copy. When left to himself he must be guided by the

following general principles:



I. The comma is used to separate for the eye what is separate in

thought.



The comma is not intended to break the matter up into lengths suited to

the breath of one reading aloud.



The comma is not an aesthetic device to improve the appearance of the

line.



II. The sole purpose of the comma is the unfolding of the sense of the

words.



III. The comma cannot be correctly used without a thorough understanding

of the sense of the words.



IV. In case of doubt, omit the comma.





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