The Business Department

=30. Divisions of the Business Department

When the paper issues from

the press, it passes into the hands of the circulation manager, whose

duties are in an entirely different department of the newspaper

organization,--the business department. This department is divided into

two or three more or less closely connected divisions, presided over by

the circulation manager, the advertising manager, and the cashier. Over

all these is the business manager, who supervises the department as a


=31. The Circulation Manager

The work of the circulation manager has

been termed simple by outsiders. But the simplicity exists only for

outsiders. The distribution of a hundred thousand to a million papers a

day is not a small task in itself, particularly when one considers the

scores of trains to be caught, the dozens of delivery wagons and wagon

drivers to be guided, and the hundreds of newsboys and newsstands to be

supplied with the very latest editions at the very earliest moment. Yet

the circulation manager's duties are even more multifarious than this.

All the canvassers for new subscriptions are under his supervision. The

organization of the newsboys for selling his paper is his duty,--and it

is marvelous how the good-will of the newsboys, even when they handle

all rival publications, can boost the sales of some particular

circulation manager's papers. The advertising of the paper's past and

forthcoming news features, such as stories by special writers, exclusive

dispatches, etc., are the brunt of his work, because in so far as he

makes people believe in the superiority of his news, they will buy the

papers. Even the outcries against public grievances and the publication

of subscription lists for charitable purposes are often the thoughts of

the circulation manager, because they invite more readers. Some

managers, under the guise of helping the down-and-outs, even publish

free all "Situations Wanted" advertisements, because they believe that

the loss in advertising will be more than paid for by the gain in the

number of readers, with the resultant possibility of higher advertising

rates or more advertising in other departments because of the increased


=32. The Advertising Manager

Closely associated with the circulation

manager is the advertising manager, who is dependent upon the former for

his rates. It makes a great difference with the advertising manager's

rates whether the circulation is a hundred thousand or a quarter of a

million, and whether the circulation is double or one half that of the

rival morning publication. The advertising manager's duties are as

manifold as those of his associate. He directs the advertising

solicitors and advises prospective advertisers about the place, prices,

space, and character of their advertisements. A chewing tobacco ad is

worth little in the column bordering the society section; the back page

is far more valuable for advertising than the inside; and the columns

next to reading matter are worth more than those on a page filled only

with advertisements. The advertising manager, too, has the power of

accepting or rejecting advertisements. Liquor, soothing syrup, and

questionable ads are barred by many managers. Some will not even accept

so-called personal ads. Yet at the same time that they are rejecting ads

in this class, such managers are straining every point to gain desirable

ones. One way of obtaining these is by advertising solicitors. Another

is by advertising in one's own paper and in publications in other

cities. Many of the metropolitan dailies exchange whole and half-page

advertisements, directing attention to their circulation figures and the

number of agate lines of advertising matter printed within the

preceding month or year. Some of these papers publish audited

statements, too, of the relative number of advertising lines printed by

their own and rival publications. But the advantage is always in their

own favor.

=33. The Cashier

The third division of the business department is the

cashier's office, frequently known as the counting room. Briefly put,

the cashier directs the pay-roll and all receipts and disbursements of

the paper. He keeps the books of the publishing company. From him the

reporter receives his pay envelop, and to him are sent all bills for

paper, ink, machinery, telegraph and telephone messages, and similar

expenses. Rarely has the cashier served an apprenticeship in the

editorial department, but he knows thoroughly the business of

bookkeeping, money changing, banking, and similar work, which is all

that is required in his position.

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