REQUIREMENTS OF SPEECH





It is very easy to learn how to speak and write correctly, as for all

purposes of ordinary conversation and communication, only about 2,000

different words are required. The mastery of just twenty hundred words,

the knowing where to place them, will make us not masters of the English

language, but masters of correct speaking and writing. Small number, you

will say, compared with what is in the dictionary! But nobody ever uses

all the words in the dictionary or could use them did he live to be the

age of Methuselah, and there is no necessity for using them.



There are upwards of 200,000 words in the recent editions of the large

dictionaries, but the one-hundredth part of this number will suffice for

all your wants. Of course you may think not, and you may not be content

to call things by their common names; you may be ambitious to show

superiority over others and display your learning or, rather, your

pedantry and lack of learning. For instance, you may not want to call a

spade a spade. You may prefer to call it a spatulous device for abrading

the surface of the soil. Better, however, to stick to the old familiar,

simple name that your grandfather called it. It has stood the test of

time, and old friends are always good friends.



To use a big word or a foreign word when a small one and a familiar one

will answer the same purpose, is a sign of ignorance. Great scholars and

writers and polite speakers use simple words.



To go back to the number necessary for all purposes of conversation

correspondence and writing, 2,000, we find that a great many people who

pass in society as being polished, refined and educated use less, for

they know less. The greatest scholar alive hasn't more than four thousand

different words at his command, and he never has occasion to use half the

number.



In the works of Shakespeare, the most wonderful genius the world has ever

known, there is the enormous number of 15,000 different words, but almost

10,000 of them are obsolete or meaningless today.



Every person of intelligence should be able to use his mother tongue

correctly. It only requires a little pains, a little care, a little study

to enable one to do so, and the recompense is great.



Consider the contrast between the well-bred, polite man who knows how to

choose and use his words correctly and the underbred, vulgar boor, whose

language grates upon the ear and jars the sensitiveness of the finer

feelings. The blunders of the latter, his infringement of all the canons

of grammar, his absurdities and monstrosities of language, make his very

presence a pain, and one is glad to escape from his company.



The proper grammatical formation of the English language, so that one may

acquit himself as a correct conversationalist in the best society or be

able to write and express his thoughts and ideas upon paper in the right

manner, may be acquired in a few lessons.



It is the purpose of this book, as briefly and concisely as possible, to

direct the reader along a straight course, pointing out the mistakes he

must avoid and giving him such assistance as will enable him to reach the

goal of a correct knowledge of the English language. It is not a Grammar

in any sense, but a guide, a silent signal-post pointing the way in the

right direction.





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