INTERJECTION





An interjection is a word used to express some sudden emotion of the

mind. Thus in the examples,--"Ah! there he comes; alas! what shall I do?"

ah, expresses surprise, and alas, distress.



Nouns, adjectives, verbs and adverbs become interjections when they are

uttered as exclamations, as, nonsense! strange! hail! away! etc.



We have now enumerated the parts of speech and as briefly as possible

stated the functions of each. As they all belong to the same family they

are related to one another but some are in closer affinity than others.

To point out the exact relationship and the dependency of one word on

another is called parsing and in order that every etymological

connection may be distinctly understood a brief resume of the foregoing

essentials is here given:



The signification of the noun is limited to one, but to any one of

the kind, by the indefinite article, and to some particular one, or

some particular number, by the definite article.



Nouns, in one form, represent one of a kind, and in another, any

number more than one; they are the names of males, or females, or of

objects which are neither male nor female; and they represent the

subject of an affirmation, a command or a question,--the owner or

possessor of a thing,--or the object of an action, or of a relation

expressed by a preposition.



Adjectives express the qualities which distinguish one person or

thing from another; in one form they express quality without

comparison; in another, they express comparison between two, or

between one and a number taken collectively,--and in a third they

express comparison between one and a number of others taken

separately.



Pronouns are used in place of nouns; one class of them is used merely

as the substitutes of names; the pronouns of another class have a

peculiar reference to some preceding words in the sentence, of

which they are the substitutes,--and those of a third class refer

adjectively to the persons or things they represent. Some pronouns are

used for both the name and the substitute; and several are frequently

employed in asking questions.



Affirmations and commands are expressed by the verb; and different

inflections of the verb express number, person, time and manner.

With regard to time, an affirmation may be present or past or

future; with regard to manner, an affirmation may be positive or

conditional, it being doubtful whether the condition is fulfilled or

not, or it being implied that it is not fulfilled;--the verb may express

command or entreaty; or the sense of the verb may be expressed

without affirming or commanding. The verb also expresses that an

action or state is or was going on, by a form which is also used

sometimes as a noun, and sometimes to qualify nouns.



Affirmations are modified by adverbs, some of which can be

inflected to express different degrees of modification.



Words are joined together by conjunctions; and the various relations

which one thing bears to another are expressed by 'prepositions. Sudden

emotions of the mind, and exclamations are expressed by interjections.



Some words according to meaning belong sometimes to one part of speech,

sometimes to another. Thus, in "After a storm comes a calm," calm is

a noun; in "It is a calm evening," calm is an adjective; and in

"Calm your fears," calm is a verb.



The following sentence containing all the parts of speech is parsed

etymologically:



"I now see the old man coming, but, alas, he has walked with much

difficulty."



I, a personal pronoun, first person singular, masculine or feminine

gender, nominative case, subject of the verb see.



now, an adverb of time modifying the verb see.



see, an irregular, transitive verb, indicative mood, present tense,

first person singular to agree with its nominative or subject I.



the, the definite article particularizing the noun man.



old, an adjective, positive degree, qualifying the noun man.



man, a common noun, 3rd person singular, masculine gender, objective

case governed by the transitive verb see.



coming, the present or imperfect participle of the verb "to come"

referring to the noun man.



but, a conjunction.



alas, an interjection, expressing pity or sorrow.



he, a personal pronoun, 3rd person singular, masculine gender,

nominative case, subject of verb has walked.



has walked, a regular, intransitive verb, indicative mood, perfect tense,

3rd person singular to agree with its nominative or subject he.



with, a preposition, governing the noun difficulty.



much, an adjective, positive degree, qualifying the noun difficulty.



difficulty, a common noun, 3rd person singular, neuter gender,

objective case governed by the preposition with.



N.B.--Much is generally an adverb. As an adjective it is thus compared:



Positive Comparative Superlative

much more most





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