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An interjection is a word used to express some sudden emotion of the
mind. Thus in the examples,--"Ah! there he comes; alas! what shall I do?"
ah, expresses surprise, and alas, distress.
Nouns, adjectives, verbs and adverbs become interjections when they are
uttered as exclamations, as, nonsense! strange! hail! away! etc.
We have now enumerated the parts of speech and as briefly as possible
stated the functions of each. As they all belong to the same family they
are related to one another but some are in closer affinity than others.
To point out the exact relationship and the dependency of one word on
another is called parsing and in order that every etymological
connection may be distinctly understood a brief resume of the foregoing
essentials is here given:
The signification of the noun is limited to one, but to any one of
the kind, by the indefinite article, and to some particular one, or
some particular number, by the definite article.
Nouns, in one form, represent one of a kind, and in another, any
number more than one; they are the names of males, or females, or of
objects which are neither male nor female; and they represent the
subject of an affirmation, a command or a question,--the owner or
possessor of a thing,--or the object of an action, or of a relation
expressed by a preposition.
Adjectives express the qualities which distinguish one person or
thing from another; in one form they express quality without
comparison; in another, they express comparison between two, or
between one and a number taken collectively,--and in a third they
express comparison between one and a number of others taken
Pronouns are used in place of nouns; one class of them is used merely
as the substitutes of names; the pronouns of another class have a
peculiar reference to some preceding words in the sentence, of
which they are the substitutes,--and those of a third class refer
adjectively to the persons or things they represent. Some pronouns are
used for both the name and the substitute; and several are frequently
employed in asking questions.
Affirmations and commands are expressed by the verb; and different
inflections of the verb express number, person, time and manner.
With regard to time, an affirmation may be present or past or
future; with regard to manner, an affirmation may be positive or
conditional, it being doubtful whether the condition is fulfilled or
not, or it being implied that it is not fulfilled;--the verb may express
command or entreaty; or the sense of the verb may be expressed
without affirming or commanding. The verb also expresses that an
action or state is or was going on, by a form which is also used
sometimes as a noun, and sometimes to qualify nouns.
Affirmations are modified by adverbs, some of which can be
inflected to express different degrees of modification.
Words are joined together by conjunctions; and the various relations
which one thing bears to another are expressed by 'prepositions. Sudden
emotions of the mind, and exclamations are expressed by interjections.
Some words according to meaning belong sometimes to one part of speech,
sometimes to another. Thus, in "After a storm comes a calm," calm is
a noun; in "It is a calm evening," calm is an adjective; and in
"Calm your fears," calm is a verb.
The following sentence containing all the parts of speech is parsed
"I now see the old man coming, but, alas, he has walked with much
I, a personal pronoun, first person singular, masculine or feminine
gender, nominative case, subject of the verb see.
now, an adverb of time modifying the verb see.
see, an irregular, transitive verb, indicative mood, present tense,
first person singular to agree with its nominative or subject I.
the, the definite article particularizing the noun man.
old, an adjective, positive degree, qualifying the noun man.
man, a common noun, 3rd person singular, masculine gender, objective
case governed by the transitive verb see.
coming, the present or imperfect participle of the verb "to come"
referring to the noun man.
but, a conjunction.
alas, an interjection, expressing pity or sorrow.
he, a personal pronoun, 3rd person singular, masculine gender,
nominative case, subject of verb has walked.
has walked, a regular, intransitive verb, indicative mood, perfect tense,
3rd person singular to agree with its nominative or subject he.
with, a preposition, governing the noun difficulty.
much, an adjective, positive degree, qualifying the noun difficulty.
difficulty, a common noun, 3rd person singular, neuter gender,
objective case governed by the preposition with.
N.B.--Much is generally an adverb. As an adjective it is thus compared:
Positive Comparative Superlative
much more most
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