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Divisions of Grammar Definitions - Etymology.
N. She They
P. Hers Theirs
O. Her Them
N. It They
P. Its Theirs
O. It Them
N. B.--In colloquial language and ordinary writing Thou, Thine and Thee
are seldom used, except by the Society of Friends. The Plural form You is
used for both the nominative and objective singular in the second person
and Yours is generally used in the possessive in place of Thine.
The Relative Pronouns are so called because they relate to some word or
phrase going before; as, "The boy who told the truth;" "He has done
well, which gives me great pleasure."
Here who and which are not only used in place of other words, but
who refers immediately to boy, and which to the circumstance of his
having done well.
The word or clause to which a relative pronoun refers is called the
The Relative Pronouns are who, which, that and what.
Who is applied to persons only; as, "The man who was here."
Which is applied to the lower animals and things without life; as, "The
horse which I sold." "The hat which I bought."
That is applied to both persons and things; as, "The friend that
helps." "The bird that sings." "The knife that cuts."
What is a compound relative, including both the antecedent and the
relative and is equivalent to that which; as, "I did what he desired,"
i. e. "I did that which he desired."
Relative pronouns have the singular and plural alike.
Who is either masculine or feminine; which and that are masculine,
feminine or neuter; what as a relative pronoun is always neuter.
That and what are not inflected.
Who and which are thus declined:
Sing. and Plural Sing. and Plural
N. Who N. Which
P. Whose P. Whose
O. Whom O. Which
Who, which and what when used to ask questions are called
Adjective Pronouns partake of the nature of adjectives and pronouns and
are subdivided as follows:
Demonstrative Adjective Pronouns which directly point out the person or
object. They are this, that with their plurals these, those, and
yon, same and selfsame.
Distributive Adjective Pronouns used distributively. They are each,
every, either, neither.
Indefinite Adjective Pronouns used more or less indefinitely. They are
any, all, few, some, several, one, other, another, none.
Possessive Adjective Pronouns denoting possession. They are my, thy,
his, her, its, our, your, their.
N. B.--(The possessive adjective pronouns differ from the possessive case
of the personal pronouns in that the latter can stand alone while the
former cannot. "Who owns that book?" "It is mine." You cannot say "it
is my,"--the word book must be repeated.)
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